PHL 320 ENTIRE COURSE
PHL 320 Week 1 Individual Assignment Critical Thinking
Instructions: Purpose of Assignment Critical thinking is an important part of problem solving, decision making, and everyday life. So, what is critical thinking and why is it so important? Assignment Steps Prepare a 700-word paper (In APA format) to yourself on critical thinking including the following:
- Explain critical thinking.
- Provide an example from your personal experience of critical thinking applied to a business decision. • Discuss the importance and benefits of using critical thinking.
- Relate the importance and benefits of critical thinking to the example provided.
- Discuss ways you might use critical thinking in your current job or chosen career path. Format your assignment consistent with APA guidelines. Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.
PHL 320 Week 2 Learning Team Charter
Instructions: Overview In this course, your team will work together to complete a few assignments. This chartering assignment is designed to help you apply your project management skills to understand the scope of your project, then break the project into goals, tasks, responsibilities, resources, and milestones. The assignment also asks you to discuss and answer some questions that will lay the foundation for developing your project. Beyond the Standard Charter You will notice that this chartering process goes beyond your standard University of Phoenix Charter by helping your team create a project plan for team success by providing you with opportunities to define your deliverables, recognize the connections between the deliverables and other classroom activities, determine your timelines and milestones, identify each team member's expected contribution, and answer questions that lay the foundation for building your projects. Putting "I" in "Team" Important to note is the section for defining learning team expectations related to participation, collaboration, communication, team contributions, assignment deadlines, and other considerations. Please take the time to discuss and document how your team will address each area and any challenges that may arise. It is important to understand that we are "Putting 'I' in 'Team'". In short, we will recognize and reward individuals according to their contributions to team output, not according to their team membership. This means that individual grades may be different from the team grade depending on each individual's contribution to each team deliverable. Completing This Assignment Review the Charter and Project plan. Review the weekly Learning Team deliverables. Complete the provided Learning Team Charter and Project Plan, including the following: team member contact information, project by week, learning team expectations, team discussion questions. Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.
PHL 320 Week 2 Individual Assignment Business Practice Argumentative Essay
Instructions: Purpose of Assignment For this assignment, the student will create an argumentative essay explaining what makes a good business decision. This allows students to use critical thinking in their research to identify the importance of deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. Assignment Steps Review the "Writing Argumentative Essays" section in Ch. 3 of Critical Thinking. Write a 1,050-word argumentative essay on your approved business decision including the following:
- Discuss why the business decision is good or not good for business.
- Define the term "good" for the purpose of this situation.
- Identify the premise and conclusion by placing a number in bold at the beginning of the sentence with the word premise or conclusion. For example: (1, Premise), (2, Premise), (1, Conclusion), (2, Conclusion).
- Sentences labeled as "1, premise" are premises for the sentence labeled as "1, conclusion."
- All premises should be labeled for each conclusion in the article. If a sentence is a conclusion and a premise for another conclusion, place two labels.
- At the end of the paper, identify one example of how you used deductive reasoning and one example of how you used inductive reasoning. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.
PHL 320 Week 3 Learning Team Assignment Problem Identification
Instructions: Purpose of Assignment for this assignment, the Learning Team conducts basic research related to a business problem. This allows students to use critical thinking in their research to identify problems and discuss how to develop potential solutions. This will build a foundation for the rest of the Learning Team's assignments. Assignment Steps Select a business situation such as reorganization, office closure, expansion, etc. Locate 1 to 2 articles from the University Library about the subject. Prepare a 700-word discussion of the business situation. The discussion should include the following:
- Summarize the issue
- Identify the problem
- Explain why this is the underlying problem
- Relate the research to the problem
- Explain how a clearly defined problem could help with solutions Format the assignment consistent with APA guidelines. Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.
PHL 320 Week 3 Individual Assignment The Planning Process
Instructions: Purpose of Assignment For this assignment, the student will identify and interview someone they know who is in a management role. This allows the student to integrate the experience of real world managers with their own insights into planning and strategy. The assignment also reinforces the importance of contingency planning. Assignment Steps Interview someone you know who is in a management role. This can be at your current place of employment or someone you know personally working in a managerial role. Prepare a 1,050-word discussion of the interview:
- Discuss what you discovered about contingency planning.
- Discuss how creativity and critical thinking relate to contingency planning.
- Explain how you might integrate creativity into your own planning process.
- Discuss what you learned about creativity and its relationship to the decision-making process.
- Identify the key steps that might require a contingency plan. Format the assignment consistent with APA guidelines. Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.
PHL 320 Week 4 Learning Team Assignment Problem Solutions
Instructions: Purpose of Assignment For this assignment, the Learning Team will identify two possible solutions identified from Week 3. During this discussion, consider the methods used to think of creative solutions. Describe how critical thinking was used in the group discussion to identify these solutions, and explain how the team overcame barriers. The assignment should demonstrate how the team used the four key factors with their business decision. Assignment Steps Select two potential creative solutions for the problem you identified in Week 3. Create a 700-word discussion of potential solutions and the team's decision-making process.
- Identify two potential solutions.
- Summarize the methods the team used to develop creative solutions.
- Describe ways the team overcame barriers to creativity to identify solutions.
- Discuss how critical thinking was applied to come up with potential solutions and to motivate change. • Explain how the team used the four key factors to make the suggested business decisions. Cite a minimum of two sources. Format the a
assignment consistent with APA guidelines. Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.
PHL 320 Week 4 Individual Team Assignment Decision-Making Process Infographic
Instructions: Purpose of Assignment
The assignment for Week 4 gives students a chance to examine their own decision-making process as well as use a creative method to illustrate the stages of the process. This gives students the opportunity to take their real world, personal decision and relate it to their future work and careers. Assignment Steps Develop a 700-word evaluation of a recent business decision in your work or desired career. Include the following:
- Discuss the influence the decision-making process had on the outcome.
- Evaluate the effectiveness of the process. What stages were most challenging and why? Create a "Decision-Making Process" infographic in an appropriate format for the organization based on the action plan. This can be done using Microsoft® PowerPoint®, Microsoft® Publisher®, Word, or sites such as Glogster® and PiktoChart®.
- Select a decision you made recently as it relates to your work or desired career.
- Identify the stages of the decision making process as it relates to your decision. Format consistent with APA guidelines. Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.
*NOTE* Your summary is a formal APA written paper with your info infographic inserted into the project. Two easy methods in which you can include your graphics is by copy and paste or screen capture (and then pasting). Don't forget to title your image per APA guidelines.
Captions and Legends
For figures, make sure to include the figure number and a title with a legend and caption. These elements appear below the visual display. For the figure number, type Figure X. Then type the title of the figure in sentence case. Follow the title with a legend that explains the symbols in the figure and a caption that explains the figure:
Figure 1. How to create figures in APA style? This figure illustrates effective elements in APA style figures.
Captions serve as a brief, but complete, explanation and as a title. For example, "Figure 4. Population" is insufficient, whereas "Figure 4. Population of Grand Rapids, MI by race (1980)" is better. If the figure has a title in the image, crop it.
Additionally, if the image is reproduced from another source, include the citation at the end of the caption. (OWL, 1995)
OWL, P. (1995, January 1). APA Tables and Figures 2. Retrieved from Purdue Online Writing Lab: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/20/
PHL 320 Week 5 Individual Assignment Ethics and Social Responsibility
Instructions: Purpose of Assignment This assignment is designed to identify how decisions impact a business. Corporations have an obligation to be ethical at all times. For this assignment; the student will identify potential ethical implications surrounding the decision, and how this may impact the decision-making process. From there, corporate social responsibility will be explained and how it can impact the outcome of decision-making for an organization. Assignment Steps Identify a business in your local community. This can be your current place of employment or a business with which you are familiar. Develop a 1,050-word examination of the ethics and social responsibility practices within the organization. Include the following in your examination:
- Select a business decision within the organization.
- Identify the potential ethical implications associated with this decision.
- Determine the effect this may have on the decision making process.
- Identify how the organization applies corporate social responsibility to the business.
- Evaluate the influence that corporate social responsibility has on the organization.
- Discuss the application of critical thinking to corporate social responsibility. Format the assignment consistent with APA guidelines. Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.
PHL 320 Week 5 Individual Assignment Final Exam
Instructions: Click the link to the Final Examination. Complete the Final Examination. You are allowed one attempt to complete the examination, which is timed and must be completed in 3 hours. Results are automatically graded and sent to your instructor. Note: The automated final exam was designed in Google Chrome and is best viewed in the latest version of the browser. If you do not use the latest version of Google Chrome to view and complete the automated final exam, you may not be able to view the entire exam content. If you do not have the most current version of Google Chrome, download the browser before you enter the exam. Final Exam Study Guide If you're taking the Final Exam, you probably have some questions, such as:
- What is the structure of the Final Exam?
- What kinds of questions will I see? Can I see some examples?
- Why is the Final Exam designed this way?
- How should I study for the Final Exam? This document will answer these questions and help get you ready for the exam. Best wishes! What's the structure of the Final Exam? The exam questions are based on course objectives and concepts from throughout the course. There are 30 multiple-choice questions for each exam. The exam is timed and must be completed in 3 hours. Students are given one attempt to complete each exam. Results are auto-graded and sent to the instructor. Note: The final exam is best viewed via the Google Chrome web browser. Please download the latest version of Google Chrome if you do not have access. What kinds of questions will I see? Can I see some examples? The Final Exam will have a mix of the following types of questions:
- Applications: Knowing definitions is important, but you also need to be able to apply those definitions in practice. On your exam, you'll need to apply definitions from individual courses, and you'll also see questions combining concepts from different courses. These different kinds of application questions can ask you to:
- Connect a concept to an example of that concept. These questions might ask you to recognize an externality in a transaction, identify a marketing strategy given a description of activities, or spot an example of a management technique in action.
- Evaluate a situation and draw conclusions. These questions ask you to analyze a situation and make an appropriate recommendation. For example, you might be asked what would make communications more effective, what is required for a contract to be enforced, or to identify what would likely happen according to a particular theory.
- Perform calculations and apply techniques: You could be asked to perform operations related to finance or accounting, determine what would happen to an equilibrium point if something in the world changes, or predict changes in exchange rates.
- Critical Thinking Questions: On your Final Exam, you'll see questions testing your critical thinking skills, which means that you'll have to draw sound, logical conclusions while applying the techniques you've learned. You might be asked to identify an assumption, analyze an argument to determine what would make it stronger or weaker, or spot a flaw in an argument. These questions are often quite difficult, so get started by checking out the examples below. Sample Questions: Note: These are general examples that may not necessarily reflect the content of your specific course, but rather will give you an idea of how the questions on your exam will be structured. 1. Rahul is a manager in the Marketing Department of Acadia Bear Hospitality, a mid-size chain of hotels primarily appealing to vacationers who are interested in nature. Rahul's goals for next year include the following: increasing revenue from guided tours by 20%, increasing the number of customers who visit Acadia Bear's Web site by 25%, and turning Acadia Bear customers into ambassadors for the Acadia Bear brand.
Individual May 21, 2018 11:59 PM 15
Which of the following changes would most improve the list of yearly goals specified above?
- doubling the proposed percentage increases in revenue from guided tours and Web site visitors
- clarifying what is meant by an "ambassador for the Acadia Bear brand"
- including proposals for changing Acadia Bear's core mission
- specifying the decisions that Rahul should make each week in order to meet these goals Answer: (B) Explanation: For goals to motivate employees, they must be clear. While many organizations want to turn their customers into "brand ambassadors," this goal should be more specific in order for Rahul to understand what success with respect to that goal would look like. (B) Is therefore correct, as it would provide Rahul with the clear understanding he would require. (A) Could be a good idea, but might not be realistic. Goals are not always improved by making them more demanding, so it is not clear that (A) would be an improvement. Asking Rahul to change the organization's core mission would be outside the scope of his responsibilities and so would not be a clear improvement to this list of goals. The list of weekly actions in (D) would probably make things worse by micromanaging Rahul. Yearly goals should not be that specific. 2. What real-world decisions would people be more likely to make if they are risk averse when considering potential losses?
- paying more for an extended warranty than the expected value of the cost of the repairs covered by the warranty
- considering the entertainment value of the gambling experience itself when deciding whether to wager in a casino
- performing home repairs oneself instead of hiring a professional
- preferring to participate in a lottery with a small chance of winning a large prize instead of receiving a small gift certificate Answer: (A) Explanation: If people fear losses in a way that strict calculations would not predict, then they would be willing to pay more to insure against those risks than the expected value of taking that risk would suggest. In (A), people pay high amounts to insure themselves against a risk that, on average, would be less costly than the warranty. So (A) is correct. (B) Makes people sound more inclined to risk losses, which doesn't fit here. (C) Is also at least arguably on the side of taking risks, given that regular individuals tend to know less about home repair than professionals do. (D) Suggests that people prefer risks when it comes to gains, but this question is about losses. 3. A research team is measuring the willingness of consumers to pay for a bundle of premium television channels. The lowest any of the participants would be willing to pay per month was $50, and the highest amount was $200. Based on this evidence, the team concludes that the median amount that the consumers studied would be willing to pay would be $125. The conclusion reached by the researchers is flawed because it _.
- fails to demonstrate that all potential consumers have the same willingness to pay as the individuals who were studied
- provides insufficient evidence to show that any one of the consumers studied would be willing to pay exactly $125
- fails to demonstrate that the mean amount that the consumers would be willing to pay is also $125
- does not compare the number of consumers who would be willing to pay more than $125 with the number of consumers who would not be willing to pay $125 Answer: (D) Explanation: The researchers have evidence on the range of prices that the consumers would be willing to pay, but that does not mean that the median is the average of the highest and lowest figures. The median is the middle value, and for all we know, the other consumers could be willing to pay much less than $125, or much more. (D) Described this flaw and is correct. (A) is incorrect because the conclusion concerns the consumers who were studied. The researchers aren't claiming that this data represents all potential consumers. (B) is incorrect because $125 could be the median even if no individual would be willing to pay exactly
$125. The median of an even number of items is the average of the middle two items. (C) Is wrong because the median and the mean are different measures that do not have to be the same. Questions 5-6 A Web site offers free resources to visitors who have medical questions. The site provides lists of symptoms and possible treatments for various conditions but makes no specific recommendations. The owners of the Web site claim that since the information in the site is medically accurate, use of the site will only improve the health outcomes of the people who use it. 5. The owners' claim depends on which of the following assumptions?
- Most of the visitors to the site have received inaccurate health advice from medical doctors.
- The site contains advice on mental health issues as well.
- The visitors to the site are capable of interpreting the information on the site accurately.
- No single resource can be expected to keep up to date with all of the latest medical research. Answer: (C) Explanation: The advice on the site is accurate, but can it do harm? One open question is whether the visitors are capable of understanding the information they receive. If (C) is not true, and they cannot interpret the information on the site accurately, then they may well do harm to themselves or others as a result of this misunderstanding. (C), therefore, must be assumed. (A) Suggests that traditional sources of advice are not perfect, but that does not suggest anything about whether any harm can come from this site. (B) Need not be assumed because the issue here is the harm that can come from the medical advice present. Nothing about other kinds of advice need be assumed. (D) Could only weaken the argument by suggesting that the advice may not be up to date. 6. Which of the following, if true, would weaken the owners' claim?
- When they have a medical issue, users of the site tend to rely on the site instead of seeing medical professionals.
- The site's revenue is closely linked to the number of unique visitors who come to the site each month.
- The site owners have plans to expand the range of medical conditions addressed on the site based on suggestions from the site visitors themselves.
- For years, the cost of medical care has increased at a higher rate than the rate of inflation. Answer: (A) Explanation: If the information is accurate, could the site still cause harm? Simply receiving accurate information doesn't seem likely to cause harm, but if (A) is true, using the site could lead people to rely on the site instead of consulting with professionals. If the site becomes a substitute for proven forms of medical care, then it could cause considerable harm. (A) Is therefore correct. (B) is incorrect because there is no clear link between this form of revenue generation and harm. If anything, the site owners would have an incentive to maintain quality in order to get people to keep coming back. (C) Is wrong because taking suggestions from visitors on the topics the site should cover should not be a problem. The customers know what their issues are, so why not ask them? (C) Would be a problem if the advice were based on customer suggestions, but that's not what (C) says. (D) is irrelevant because it tells us nothing about this site or what happens to the people who use it. Academic Integrity The exams for this course are individual, at home, open book exercises. Although you have and can continue to discuss concepts with others prior to taking the exams, the exams must represent your own learning and information utilization competency. Collaboration in completing the exams or sharing of questions and answers with other students or on the Internet will be treated as serious violations of the Student Code of Conduct and reported to the University as a violation of the Student Code of Conduct. By completing the exams, you certify that the results represent your individual effort and that you will adhere to the Student Code of Academic Integrity. Why is the Final Exam designed this way?
The Final Exam brings together key concepts, skills, and knowledge from the entire course, because that's what you'll need to do in the real world to help organizations reach their goals. While we often study skills one at a time, we use them in combinations. In addition, while understanding concepts and techniques will always help and is often necessary, you'll also need critical thinking skills to maximize your impact in your career. There is widespread agreement that critical thinking is one of the essential skills required for post-graduation success. Critical thinkers can help organizations avoid disaster, but they can also spot opportunities that other people miss and find alternative solutions when others see only one way. That's why your Final Exam has questions asking you to critically evaluate claims and analyze the connection between evidence and conclusion. How should I study for the Final Exam? Start by reviewing the core concepts from each week of the course. Without that background, you'll have trouble with the applications. Don't just memorize terms and formulas. Imagine how you would use those concepts to make better decisions. Use the sample questions above to get a better sense of what the Final Exam will be like. Get used to critically evaluating claims, spotting assumptions, and weighing evidence. This will help you do better on the exam, and those skills will stay with you for your entire career. A bonus: Preparing for the exams will allow you to take inventory of the knowledge and tools you've acquired throughout the course, so you can more readily apply what you've learned for professional success.
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