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CJUS 320 CJUS320 MIDTERM EXAM ANSWER (LIBERTY UNIVERSITY)

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CJUS320 Midterm Exam (Liberty University)

Over the past fifty years, the sentencing options available to judges have increased.
Sentenced offenders can serve up to one year in jail.
Which of the following is the process during which officials determine whether a juvenile case should be dismissed, handled informally, or referred to the juvenile court?
As many drug crimes were federalized, the federal prison population declined with less than one-third of all federal prison inmates serving sentences for drug offenses.
Which 1981 Supreme Court decision set forth that housing two inmates in a cell designed for one did not violate the Eighth Amendment's protection from cruel and unusual punishment?
Inmates should do as little as possible in prison in order to prepare for release to the community.
Which of the following calls for fixed sentences so that the punishment fits the crime?
Which one of the following is NOT true about the aging of the prison population?
The presentence investigation is not intended to assist courts in the sentencing decision.
The warden is the elected official who oversees both policing activities within the county and the operation of the jail.
Which of the following was a problem with the Pennsylvania system?
Whose efforts in jail reform led to the passing of the Penitentiary Act in 1779?
Which constitutional amendment states that excessive bail may not be required?
Who was the first director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons?
What was the first prison designed to house sentenced offenders in the United States called?
What was the first stage of the Irish system of release?
What main factor differentiates jails from prisons?
Which of the following is a point determination for each inmate for use with parole guidelines?
There is currently little difference between the procedural due process requirements of the juvenile and adult justice systems.
Which was NOT a requirement for English prisons and jails as specified by the English Penitentiary Act of 1779?
The goals and philosophies of the juvenile justice system are nearly identical to those of the criminal justice system.
The average length of women's prison sentences is equal to those of men.
Which type of supervision is typically satisfactory for offenders who pose little risk to the community?
The Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 made way for parole, and increased the amount of good time available to federal offenders.
Which enactment pertains to interstate transportation of stolen vehicles?
Which early colonial bail system enabled rich offenders to pay a fee and be released?
Where was the first U.S. penitentiary established?
Judges have little discretion in imposing special conditions of probation.
The length of parole supervision following release from prison is never more than a year.
Almost 80 percent of the women in state prisons have "severe, long-standing substance abuse problems."
In which case did the Eighth Circuit Court suggest five criteria to be used to examine whether differences in prison programs discriminate against female inmates?
Electronic monitoring is a criminal sanction, not a method of supervision.
What is the general removal of juveniles from correctional institutions and their introduction in community alternatives called?
Which law, enacted by the British Parliament in 1853, enabled prisoners to be released into the community and supervised by the police? Selected Answer: Penal Servitude Act
Good time is used only in determinate sentences because it allows inmates to reduce the jail term until their eligibility for release.
The high volume of jail admissions and releases often results in mistakes.
Offenders are fingerprinted and booked into the jail before arrest.
Female offenders suffer from mental illness at a lower rate than their male counterparts.
In criminal cases, offenders can neither be charged with more than one crime, nor can they be charged with several counts of the same crime.
Which of the following would NOT be considered a practical suicide prevention activity for a jail?
Violence is equally likely in male prisons and female prisons.
Which Supreme Court case allowed an exception to parole violations by holding that failure to make restitution payments due to unemployment is not sufficient reason to revoke probation?
In which country did pretrial release programs originate?
Maconochie's mark system allowed for inmates to be released once they earned the required level of marks through work and good behavior.
Mental health courts are merely drug courts handling the mentally ill.
Which type of Federal Bureau of Prison facility handles the highest number of inmates?
The role of prisons in the U.S. criminal justice system over the past several years has grown tremendously.
A crime that is punishable by less than one year of incarceration is a felony.
In which of the following sentencing models do judges have primary discretion in creating the sentence?
Which of the following is responsible for housing illegal aliens pending a hearing?
Criminologists have consistently found that, when compared to youth who do not belong to gangs, gang members are far more involved in delinquency, especially serious and violent delinquency.
Employment is key to successful reentry.
Hearing procedures are the same in every state.
Most offenders today serve a determinate sentence that is much longer than in the past.
The makeup of the prison population is increasingly black and brown, as white offenders comprise a continually smaller proportion of the prison population.
Which step does NOT occur during the formal revocation of parole?
Split sentences have become more common over the past two decades thanks to the "tough on crime" approach.
Which of the following is Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) NOT responsible for?
Which of the following is a form of restitution in which offenders repay their victims directly for their losses and harm caused by the offense? Selected Answer: victim compensation
The amount of money directed to criminal justice agencies has decreased greatly in recent years.
At the end of 2010, the population of state and federal prisons was largely ________.
Which offenses contributed to the most significant increase in the number of prison inmates?
Which of the following decreases as prison security level increases?
A majority of the prison population is comprised of minorities.
Prison administrators try to keep inmates idle in their cells and quiet for as much of the day as possible.
The police, the courts, and judges make up the three major components of the criminal justice system.
Which is NOT one of the three most important reasons for effective jail classification systems?
Jail inmates may have only noncontact visits. What type of visitor is the exception?
What was the emphasis in the Rehabilitative Era?
Who among the following concluded that criminals had traits that made them throwbacks to earlier stages of evolution?
The U.S. Supreme Court still allows the execution of juvenile offenders who have committed very serious crimes.
General deterrence presumes that others in society will not commit crimes because they see that there is a punishment for such acts, and that individuals receive the prescribed punishments.
The number of people in the nation's jails has decreased significantly over the past twenty years.
A lockup is a jail that serves more than one county and is overseen by a regional jail commission.
During a revocation hearing, a probationer may be represented by legal counsel and may have the opportunity to testify.
The penitentiary was first established because the Pennsylvania Quakers decided that a more humane and efficient way to punish and reform criminals was needed.
Which theorist suggested that criminal laws should be organized so that the punishment for any act would outweigh the pleasure that would be derived from the act?
Which of the following is the formal processing of a juvenile offense through the juvenile court?
In rural counties, which elected official oversees the operation of the jail?
Which of the following is NOT one of the three major steps in the sentencing and release processes for discretionary parole?
When and where was the first juvenile court established?
Most offenders are sentenced to probation and supervised in the community by probation or parole officers.
Which 1973 Supreme Court decision created the due process requirements for revoking probation?
Transitional employment programs provide subsidized work to current prisoners with close supervision, mentoring, and on-the-job training.
What should a parole officer's first step be if he or she thinks a parolee has failed to adhere to a technical condition of parole supervision?
Which stage of Maconochie's marks system emphasized punishment and included solitary confinement and a diet of bread and water?
Which eighteenth-century theorist is recognized as the founder of the Classical School of criminology?
Which is the most important element in the operations and policies of all correctional facilities?
Which correctional era advocated an environment that emphasized reformation, education, and vocational programs, and focused offenders' attention on the future?
Retribution was strongly emphasized as the goal of prisons until the 1970s.
Which of the following is NOT true of determinate sentences?
Which of the following is NOT relevant for the pretrial diversion program?
Which of the following is NOT a factor inherent in correctional settings that hampers the provision of health services?
What is a major difference between the juvenile and criminal justice systems?
Intermediate sanctions provide less supervision and monitoring than standard probation.
In the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, Congress required assessments of the juvenile justice system to identify youth who were helped, rather than victimized, by placement in juvenile facilities.
About how many more jails are there in the United States than prisons?
Which of the following is NOT a sentencing option?
What percentage completion of sentence does the truth in sentencing reform require?
How is order within the prison maintained?

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